Thermoelectricity allows the direct and reciprocal conversion between thermal and electrical energy, thanks to the use of suitable materials.

This phenomenon is currently exploited to produce cold (refrigeration by Peltier effect) or generate electricity (thermoelectric generators by Seebeck effect).

Energy converters based on thermoelectric technology have many advantages:

  • Unlimited life without special maintenance
  • No noise nuisance
  • Great robustness
  • Clean energy

Peltier refrigeration finds opportunities in portable refrigerators, air conditioning and cooling of electronic components.
Thermoelectric generators have been successfully developed since 1962 to power space probes over long periods (Voyager 1&2, Galileo, Cassini...)

In the current ecological context, electricity production from thermoelectric processes appears to be a reservoir of clean energy .


The Seebeck effect is the build up of an electric potential across a temperature gradient.

This phenomenon is based on the thermoelectric properties of certain materials: semiconductors.

The conversion from a heat flow to an electric current is explained by the diffusion of electrons from the hot side to the cold side.

Electric power generated by Seebeck module as a function of the temperature gradient at its terminals


The Peltier effect is a thermoelectric effect which makes it possible to produce cold when semiconductors are subjected to a direct electric voltage .

The Peltier effect is the reciprocal effect of the Seebeck effect.

A Peltier module is an assembly of semiconductor pads. These elements are electrically connected in series.
The module produces cold and heat when it is crossed by an electric current. One side absorbs calories (cold source ) and the other side dissipates them (hot source ).

The video below illustrates the Peltier effect:
An operator injects a DC voltage in a Peltier module. The temperature drops and becomes negative!


HotBlock OnBoard

has developed unique know-how in the manufacturing of Seebeck and Peltier thermoelectric devices to offer you products that meet your needs.

Results of several years of research & development, we use different families of materials, which allows us to offer a wide range of temperatures of use.

We size and assemble thermoelectric modules that incorporate these materials to meet the most demanding use cases.

Our expertise covers all the steps necessary for the production of thermoelectric modules.


To size your modules and simulate their thermoelectric & thermomechanical behaviors in your applications, HotBlock OnBoard has developed its own digital calculation tool.


Temperature field


Deformation field


Stress field


  • High Power Thermoelectric Generators
  • Thermoelectric generators for autonomous applications
  • Peltier solid state cooling devices
Our teams remain at your disposal to respond quickly to your requests.